World War II: The Fear and the Freedom

by Keith Lowe

The Second World War was not just another crisis—it directly affected more people than any other conflict in history. Over 100 million men and women were mobilized, a figure that easily dwarfs the number who fought in any previous war, including the Great War of 1914–18. Hundreds of millions of civilians around the world were also dragged into the conflict—not only as refugees like Georgina Sand (a Jewish child survivor), but also as factory workers, as suppliers of food or fuel, as providers of comfort and entertainment, as prisoners, as slave labourers, and as targets. For the first time in modern history the number of civilians killed vastly outweighed the number of soldiers, not just by millions, but by tens of millions. Four times as many people were killed in the Second World War as in the First. For every one of those people there were dozens who were indirectly affected by the vast economic and psychological upheavals that accompanied the war.

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Posted in Contemporary History

The Lordly Roscoe Conkling

by Scott S. Greenberger

Despite his promising start as a young man, by his early fifties Chester A. Arthur was known as the crooked crony of New York machine boss Roscoe Conkling. For years Arthur had been perceived as unfit to govern, not only by critics and the vast majority of his fellow citizens but by his own conscience. As President James A. Garfield struggled for his life, Arthur knew better than his detractors that he failed to meet the high standard a president must uphold.

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Posted in Modern History

Echoes of Mayerling: The Unlikely Career of Countess Marie Larisch

by Greg King and Penny Wilson

By 1918, the Austro-Hungarian and the German Empires had collapsed into nothingness.  Imperial families were stripped of their titles and relegated to the status of citizen; their laws and traditions were wiped away and—absent the suffocating censorship of their former rulers—artists, musicians, playwrights, and writers burst forth with a wave of creativity as they explored previously banned historical and cultural subjects.  At the same time, attracted by the combination of this immediate post-war artistic excitement and middle Europe’s gorgeous scenery, motion-picture companies descended on the larger cities, including Munich in the former kingdom of Bavaria.

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Posted in Modern History

The Mafia’s President: Nixon and the Mob

by Don Fulsom

Unbeknownst to most people even now, the election of 1968 placed the patron saint of the Mafia in the White House. In other words, Richard Nixon would go on to not only lead a criminal presidency; he would be totally indebted to our nation’s top mobsters.

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Posted in Contemporary History

The Mayflower Compact

by Rebecca Fraser

Although the Mayflower’s crew were experienced sailors—Captain Jones had spent a lifetime transporting wine, while the two pilots or mates, John Clarke and Robert Coppin, had previously been to Virginia and New England—Jones had never travelled beyond Europe and he became alarmed by the huge waves, roaring breakers and shoals between Cape Cod and Martha’s Vineyard. Instead of continuing south towards Virginia, he decided it was safer to turn the ship around and sail back up the coast to Cape Cod. Where Provincetown now stands on a slender peninsula curved around like a lobster claw, the Mayflower made anchor at sunrise on 11 November 1620, after just over two months at sea.

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Posted in Modern History
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