The Lewis Chessmen: Brexit and a New North Sea Style

Viking helmets. By Helgi Halldórsson from Reykjavík, Iceland. Image is in the public domain via

by Nancy Marie Brown

Look at a map and remember the key position this area enjoyed from the 8th to the 13th centuries. From the beginning of the Viking Age in 793, the sea road connected these places we think of as far apart and culturally distinct.  They include Norway and Scotland, England and Iceland, the Orkney Islands and Greenland, the Hebrides and Newfoundland. This empire of the North lasted almost 500 years.  Until the Norwegian king signed the Treaty of Perth in 1266, finally ceding control of the islands off Scotland. Read more ›

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Posted in Medieval History

The Higgins Boat: America’s First Amphibious Warfare Strategy

Higgins Boat

Michael E. Haskew

From the inception of amphibious warfare strategy and tactics, the Marine Corps sought the most efficient method of moving fighting men from ship to shore. Finding a proper landing craft that could reach the beach and discharge Marines swiftly sometimes seemed an insurmountable problem. Read more ›

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Posted in Military History

How General George Washington Spies Defeated the British

General George Washington

by John A. Nagy

General George Washington was always concerned about spies. They were a constant problem except when the armies were on the move. He knew he could not stop all of them, so feeding them false information was his next best defense. With that in mind on December 12, 1776, he told Colonel John Cadwalader of the Philadelphia Associators of the Pennsylvania militia. “Keep a good look out for spies; endeavor to magnify your numbers as much as possible.” It was a ploy he would use over and over again in creating false troop information. Inflating the size and giving the wrong location of his forces for spies to discover and take back to enemy headquarters. Read more ›

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Posted in Military History

The Battle of Cambrai–St Quentin, Sept 27 – Oct 9,1918

Cambrai-St Quentin

Editor: Michael Spilling and Consultant Editor: Chris McNab

The attack on the Cambrai–St Quentin sector was intended as the British portion of a joint offensive all along the Western Front. French Marshal Ferdinand Foch, the architect of Allied strategy, wanted attacks on the entire length of the front to prevent the Germans from focusing their dwindling resources in one area only. Read more ›

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Posted in Military History

An American Slavery Time Line 1492–1776

American Slavery Time Line

by Kenneth C. Davis

American Slavery Time Line in Early American History

Slavery in America began in the early 17th Century and continued to be practiced for the next 250 years by the colonies and states. Slaves, mostly from Africa, worked in the production of tobacco crops and later, cotton. With the invention of the cotton gin in 1793 along with the growing demand for the product in Europe, the use of slaves in the South became a foundation of their economy. Read more ›

Posted in Modern History
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