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Stalin’s Order No. 227: “Not a Step Back”


By Catherine Merridale Order no. 227 was issued on 28 July. At Stalin’s insistence, it was never printed for general distribution. Instead, its contents were conveyed by word of mouth to every man and woman in the army. “Your reports

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How Much Did Stalin Know?

Truman and Stalin

By Micheal D. Gordin On July 16, a day before Terminal began, scientists working for the Manhattan Project had detonated the world’s first atomic explosion in the desert outside Alamogordo, New Mexico: Operation Trinity. Atop a hundred- foot- tall tower,

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